Cervical cancer is a cancer of the cervix.It is caused due to the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to spread to other parts of the body. it is one of the most common cancer followed by Breast cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, skin cancer, and many more. It is mostly found developing in females.The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Early on, typically no symptoms are seen. Later symptoms may include abnormal vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, or pain during sexual intercourse. While bleeding after sex may not be serious, it may also indicate the presence of cervical cancer. Cancer can often be successfully treated when it’s found early. It is usually found at a very early stage through a Pap test.
Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual contact with someone who has it. There are many types of the HPV virus. Human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 are the cause of 75% of cervical cancer cases globally, while 31 and 45 are the causes of another 10%.Women who have many sexual partners (or who have sex with men who have had many other partners) have a greater risk.Of the 150-200 types of HPV known,15 are classified as high-risk types (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 68, 73, and 82), three as probable high-risk (26, 53, and 66), and 12 as low-risk (6, 11, 40, 42, 43, 44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81, and CP6108).Not all types of HPV cause cervical cancer. Some of them cause genital warts, but other types may not cause any symptoms.
Most adults have been infected with HPV at some time. An infection may go away on its own. But sometimes it can cause genital warts or lead to cervical cancer. That’s why it’s important for women to have regular Pap tests. A Pap test can find changes in cervical cells before they turn into cancer. If you treat these cell changes, you may prevent cervical cancer.
Abnormal cervical cell changes rarely cause symptoms.The early stages of cervical cancer may be completely free of symptoms.Vaginal bleeding, contact bleeding (one most common form being bleeding after sexual intercourse), or (rarely) a vaginal mass may indicate the presence of malignancy. Also, moderate pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge are symptoms of cervical cancer. In advanced disease, metastases may be present in the abdomen, lungs, or elsewhere.
Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may include: loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, pelvic pain, back pain, leg pain, swollen legs, heavy vaginal bleeding, bone fractures, and/or (rarely) leakage of urine or feces from the vagina. Bleeding after douching or after a pelvic exam is a common symptom of cervical cancer.
But you may have symptoms if those cells grow into cervical cancer. Symptoms of cervical cancer may include:
- Bleeding from the vagina that is not normal, such as bleeding between menstrual periods, after sex, or after menopause.
- Pain in the lower belly or pelvis.
- Pain during sex.
- Vaginal discharge that isn’t normal.
As part of a pelvic exam, you should have a Pap test or Papanicolaou test . During a Pap test, the doctor scrapes a small sample of cells from the surface of the cervix to look for cell ch
- Stage IA may be treated by surgery hysterectomy (removal of the whole uterus including part of the vagina) and removal of pelvic lymph nodes with or without removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes for stage 1A2. Early stages (IB1 and IIA less than 4 cm) can be treated with radical hysterectomy with removal of the lymph nodes or radiation therapy. Early stages (IB1 and IIA less than 4 cm) can be treated with radical hysterectomy with removal of the lymph nodes or radiation therapy.
- Larger early-stage tumors (IB2 and IIA more than 4 cm) may be treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy, hysterectomy (which then usually requires adjuvant radiation therapy), or cisplatin chemotherapy followed by hysterectomy.Advanced-stage tumors (IIB-IVA) are treated with radiation therapy and cisplatin-based chemotherapy.
Some foods rich cin vitamins help in reducing the risk of cervical cancer; Spinach which is rich in folic acid, cabbage, broccoli,
Preventions of cervical cancer.
Vaccines for cure human papillomavirus, or HPV.
Avoid sleeping with different partners.
Cervical cancer and diet.
Fruits and vegetables which contain water soluble vitamins and carotenoids;
- black beans,
- Spinach, including the ones that gives vitamin A such as
- carrots and sweet potatoes.